Designing good forms means making sure you're asking the right questions in the right way. Research, write and structure questions with consideration.
Form inputs are any point that the user gives you data. There are different types of form inputs — check boxes, free text boxes, radio buttons, drop down menus. Use them appropriately to help users give you the right answer, first time.
Form patterns are ways to solve commonly occurring problems. They can be reusable both within a single form (for example, validation messages) and across different forms (asking for name, address and so on).